Exploring Limit Calculus: Definition, Properties, Techniques, and Examples

November 14, 2023

Calculating Limits

Limits are a fundamental concept in mathematics, serving as a cornerstone for understanding convergence, continuity, and calculus. Without limits calculus is not complete because limits provide the formal framework for comprehending the behavior of functions, also, they give the point closer to the function.

With the use of definitions, characteristics, and computation methods, we shall explore the comprehensive article limit in this article. Additionally, we shall talk about the idea of limit with the aid of specific.

Limit in calculus definition 

A limit in mathematics defines the value a function or sequence approaches as its input or index approaches a certain point or infinity.

The limit of a function as it approaches a specific value, say ‘c’ is denoted by the symbol lim, and it is defined as follows:

Limit in calculus definition 

Limit: Properties 

To deal with increasingly complicated functions and simplify limit calculations, it is essential to understand the characteristics of limits. In other words, the limit of the function as it approaches a certain value or point is determined by the behavior of the function near that value or point, not by the value of the function at that point. 

Here, we go over the many characteristics of limits.

Functions Limits Results
Limit of a Constant lim(x → c) k k
Limit of a Difference and Sum lim(x → c) [f(x) + g(x)] lim(x → c) f(x) + lim(x → c) g(x)
lim(x → c) [f(x) – g(x)] lim(x → c) f(x) – lim(x → c) g(x)
Limit of a Product lim(x → c) [p(x) × q(x)] [lim(x → c) p(x)] × [lim(x → c) q(x)]
Limit of a Quotient lim(x → c) \([\dfrac{p(x)}{q(x)}]\) [lim(x → c) p(x)] / [lim(x → c) q(x)]
Limit of a Power lim(x → c) \([f(x)^n]\) [lim(x → c) \(f(x)]^n\)

We will make heavy use of these qualities throughout the study since they are crucial in making limit computations simpler.

Different techniques used to solve limit 

By solving complex functions different methods are used to find the limit of the given function.  Here we discuss the different techniques of limit to calculating limits.

Direct Substitution

In limits, direct substitution is adding the value to the expression when the variable gets closer to a given point. It’s a simple technique that works if the phrase stays defined at the specified moment.

Canceling and Factoring

To assess the limit, common factors are found and eliminated, which simplifies formulations. This process is known as factoring and canceling in limits. When direct replacement results in an indeterminate form, such as 0/0 or ∞/∞, this approach might be helpful. Common terms can be eliminated by factoring both the numerator and the denominator, resulting in a reduced statement. This method is an effective calculus technique since it makes evaluating the limit easier. To avoid division by zero mistakes in the simplified formulation, care must be taken to verify that the factored terms are non-zero. 


Rationalizing in limits involves manipulating the expression to eliminate radicals from the denominator. This is often done by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by a conjugate to create a simplified form that allows for straightforward evaluation of the limit.


Example 1: Consider the function lim (x → – 1) \(\dfrac{x+9}{x-3}\). Reducing the specified limit function.


Given data 

lim (x → – 1) \(\dfrac{x+9}{x-3}\) 

We can solve this question by using the direct substitution technique 

For simplification first, we factorized the nominator then we got the result 

First factorization

 \((x+9) = (x-3) (x+3)\)

Simplify the result

\((x+3) = \dfrac{x+9}{x-3}\) 

Put the step 2 result in the original equation we get

lim (x → – 1) \(\dfrac{x+9}{x-3}\) = lim (x → – 1) \((x+3)\)

Put the value of limit:

lim (x → – 1) \((x+3) = -1+3 = 2\)

Example 2: lim (x → – 5) \(\dfrac{x}{(x+1)}\). Determine the given limit of the function.


Given data

lim (x → – 5) \(\dfrac{x}{(x+1)}\)

After applying the given limit, we get

lim (x → – 5) \(\dfrac{x}{(x+1)}\)

f(x) = \(\dfrac{-5}{(-5)+1}\)

Simplify the given data

lim (x → – 5) \(\dfrac{x}{(x+1)}\) = \(\dfrac{-5}{-4}\) = \(\dfrac{5}{4}\) \(= 1.25\)


We have discussed in this article the limit concept in calculus by using definitions, properties, and different techniques to solve the complex limit function easily. Additionally, we covered the limits of calculus in this article with the help of detailed examples and their step-by-step solution. I hope can defend this article anywhere.


What does a limit at infinity mean, for example, lim(x → ∞) f(x))?

The long-term behavior of a function can be better understood when a limit is assessed as the variable gets closer to infinity or moves toward negative infinity. It shows what happens to the function when the extremes of its input values are reached.

What are some typical misunderstandings about calculus limits?

Typical misunderstandings regarding limits include believing that a limit must always be equal to the function’s value, failing to acknowledge the possibility that a limit might not exist, and misinterpreting the idea of limit continuity.

Discuss the few practical applications of limit in real life.

Limits are employed in many practical applications, including computing instantaneous rates of change in physics, figuring out a curve’s slope in engineering, and comprehending population dynamics in biology. Additionally, they are essential in solving optimization issues in engineering and economics.

Can't find your query?

Fill out the form below with your query and we will get back to you in 24 hours.